The biggest impediment to strategy implementation is the traditional functional mindset of many senior executives. The traditional functional mindset, prevalent since the industrial revolution, promotes attitudes and behaviors that are counterproductive in the current business environment.

Functional thinking is based on an inside-out view in which departmental focus, reporting relations, and the flow of authority are predominant factors.

This drives a disproportional preoccupation with company structure and leads to frequent restructuring in the hope that if the organization chart were properly defined and filled, the organization's performance would automatically improve.

Functional view also reinforces the traditional view of performance measurement in which the dominant factors are actual-vs.-budget performance by department and a conservative view of technology.