By Helen Lewis and John Gertsakis, the authors of Design + Environment



  • Define the aim of the design project

  • List specific objectives

General requirements

  • Define the primary function of the product

  • State the durability requirements

  • List aesthetic considerations

  • Define ergonomics requirements

  • List the safety requirements and issues

  • Outline the required performance and quality

Environmental objectives

  • List specific strategies relating to materials, efficiency, recovery at end of life and so on

  • Include quantitative targets where relevant

Production requirements

  • Specify manufacturing requirements and limitations

  • Include any objectives or targets


Regulations and standards

  • List any mandatory regulations, standards or codes of practice relevant to the product


  • Specify limits on costs of production to ensure that the product is competitive


New Product Development

Value Innovation: Yin-Yang Strategies

New Product Design

Design for Environment

Design for Waste Minimization

Design for Waste Recycling

Life-cycle Assessment (LCA)


Cleaner Production

Benefits of Eco-Effectiveness

Cleaner Production Strategies

Environmentally-sound Technologies (ESTs)

EMS What and Why


Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR)


Continuous Improvement Firm (CIF)

Kaizen Mindset

Kaizen: 5 Principles

Suggestion Systems

Lean Enterprise: 13 Tips

7 Wastes To Be Eliminated

3 Broad Types of Wastes

Areas Targeted by TQM in Japan


Best Practices

New Product Design by IDEO

Canon Production System


Fun4Biz Suggestion System