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Cleaner Production

10 Cleaner Production Strategies

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By Graedel, T.E., and B.R. Allenby, the authors of Industrial Ecology



  1. Eliminate residue streams that contain substances under phase-out regulatory restrictions

  2. Minimize the use of de-ionized water, the generation of which consumes substantial amounts of energy and the use of which generates an additional residue stream to worry about

  3. Avoid the introduction or substitution of new residue streams requiring new discharge permits, modifications to existing permits, or off-site disposal

  4. Eliminate or minimize residue streams containing toxic substances, especially those found on regulatory lists

  5. Redesign factory layouts and product routings during manufacture to eliminate all necessary cleaning steps

  6. Replace processes using organic solvents with processes using water-based solvents

  7. Substitute less volatile chemicals for more volatile chemicals in industrial processes

  8. Change processes to eliminate the use of volatile solvents altogether

  9. Attempt to reduce the temperatures of manufacturing processes

  10. Avoid using heavy metal catalysts by substituting processes that achieve the same products by reactions between environmentally benign chemicals

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