Lean Production


Key Features


7 Broad Types of Wastes

Unreasonableness (Muri), Inconsistency (Mura), Waste Activities (Muda)


7 Wastes




7 Wastes 3 Broad Types of Waste Lean Production Lean Manufacturing: 3 Broad Types of Waste - Muri, Mura, Muda (Unreasonableness, Inconsisitency, Waste Activities)  

The elimination of waste is the goal of Lean Production.

Toyota defined three broad types of waste: muri,  mura and muda.

The words muri, mura and muda are often used together and referred to as the three MU's in Japan.





"Just as muda offers a handy checklist to start Kaizen, the words mura and muri are used as a handy reminder to start Kaizen in a workplace (gemba). Mura means irregularity, and muri means strain. Anything strenuous or irregular indicates a problem. Furthermore, both mura and muri also constitute muda that needs to be eliminated," ~ Masaaki Imai.



Kaizen MIndset

Key Practices





Vadim Kotelnikov advice quotes

Every radical innovation or radical improvement should be followed by an army of incremental innovations and/or continuous improvements to achieve greater and sustainable results.

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Efficiency & Quality







Muri is all the unreasonable work that management imposes on workers and machines because of poor organization, such as carrying heavy weights, moving things around, dangerous tasks, even working significantly faster than usual. It is pushing a person or a machine beyond its natural limits. This may simply be asking a greater level of performance from a process than it can handle without taking shortcuts and informally modifying decision criteria. Muri also includes bad working conditions, and it will often push a resource to work harder than its natural limits. Unreasonable work is almost always a cause of multiple variations. Lean focuses on the planning of processes to avoid muri and on the preparation and planning of the process, or what work can be avoided proactively by design.


Lean Manufacturing

Lean vs. Traditional Manufacturing

7 Wastes


 Just-in-Time (JIT) Manufacturing

Kaizen and Lean Manufacturing





Mura is the variation and inconsistency in quality and volume in both products and human conditions. Lean focuses on how the work design is implemented and the elimination of fluctuation at the scheduling or operations level, such as quality and volume.

Muda is the Japanese word for waste. It specifies it specifies any human activity, which absorbs resources, but does not directly add customer value. These non-value-adding activities and results are to be eliminated. Lean Manufacturing is, in its most basic form, the systematic elimination of 7 wastes overproduction, waiting, transportation, inventory, motion, over-processing, defective units and the implementation of the concepts of continuous flow and customer pull.

Muda is discovered after the process is in place and is dealt with reactively. It is seen through variation in output. It is the role of management to examine the muda in the processes and eliminate the deeper causes by considering the connections to the muri and mura of the system. The muda and mura inconsistencies must be fed back to the muri, or planning, stage for the next project.


Toyota Problem Solving Techniques

3 Basic Principles of Continuous Improvement

10 Kaikaku Commandments

14 TQM Slogans at Pentel, Japan

Key Features of Lean Production

Characteristics of Lean Manufacturing Systems




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Edward Deming advice quotes

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