In centralization, a limited
amount of authority is delegated. In decentralization, a significant amount
of authority is delegated to lower levels. Each form has its advantages and
disadvantages and is affected by a number of factors, such as size of
organization and the amount of geographic dispersion. If the organization is
very large, diversified or geographically dispersed, the limitations of
expertise and personal resources will generally lead to decentralization of
authority to the heads of these different businesses. Innovative
enterprises, where speed and adaptability to change are characteristics of
the business, tend towards decentralization.
Delegation is the process that makes management possible, because management
is the process of getting results accomplished through others. A manager
members with the information they require to do a good job,
with them frequently, and giving them clear guidelines on the results that
are expected. Further, managers must also take the "relationship
responsibility" for those with whom they work.
Delegation is the preferred approach to
people who have high skill and high will to complete the specific task at
At a certain point, there are just
too many facets to running a successful business to continue doing it alone.
increasingly complex business environment, with all the trends affecting
business today, such as globalization, the information technology explosion,
strategic alliances, increased
mergers and acquisitions, heightened competition, and higher
expectations of nearly every customer, it just isn't possible to still be
that one person in control of everything. Bringing in others to manage is an
absolute necessity for survival now.
Owners and managers should
concentrate on the activities they do that bring the most value to their
organization. You must perform only "essential activities" that give the
over other companies in the industry. Learn to
do less and
The delegation task is in finding
the right persons and giving them the right work. The sheer volume of
management responsibilities necessitates delegation. Always drop unnecessary
work altogether; concentrate only on the tasks that nobody else can do.
Necessary tasks that can be done by others should be delegated.
Often the need to delegate is
sparked by rapid
business expansion, particularly as a result of
Resist the temptation to keep
tasks to yourself as a means of control or a demonstration of power. Be a
leader rather than a mentor.
The first step is to recognize
when it is time to delegate. Then determine what to delegate, how, and to
To help you define and allot
tasks, including your own, ask yourself three of
What am I doing that does not need
to be done at all?
What am I doing that can be done
by somebody else?
What am I doing that only I can
Delegating responsibilities to
those you trust would free you to focus on what you are best at. Promoting
from within is a valuable tool for retaining and motivating your people.
However, if current employees don't have the skills your business needs,
don't hesitate to hire someone who does. It often makes sense to search for
someone who can immediately add value to your
management team as well as
transfer some of his or her skills to others in your organization.
The Secret of
Explain the task, tell
your people what should be done, but don't tell them how. "This is the
secret of successful delegation. When you tell somebody exactly how you want
a task carried out, it removes any creativity. It becomes completely boring,
there is no challenge and they do not have to develop in any capacity
whatsoever," says Richard Denny...
Using the Skill/Will Matrix
If you assigned a task to someone and the job
does not quite get done well enough, one of the most likely reasons is that:
you have delegated the task to someone who is
unwilling - or unable - to complete the job, and have then remained
relatively uninvolved or 'hands-off', or
you may have been too directive or 'hands-on'
with a capable person who was quite able to complete the assignment with
little assistance from you; you just ended up demotivating him/her.
Consequently, whether you are
managing, or leading,
or coaching, it is critical
to match your style of interaction with the coachee's readiness for the
task. The Skill/Will Matrix will help you do this...